Skip to main content

APA Referencing Style Guide

This guide introduces the APA referencing style with examples of citation styles for different types of resources.

Conference papers found online

Conference paper as a PDF from a website

Porter, M., Omar, M., Campus, C., & Edinburgh, S. (2008, January). Marketing to the bottom of the pyramid: Opportunities in emerging markets. Paper presented at the 7th International Congress Marketing Trends, Venice, Italy. Retrieved from http://www.escp-eap.eu/conferences/marketing/2008_cp/Maktoba.pdf

Markman, K. M. (2003, October). Taking the flesh with me: Embodied; interaction as a framework for studying Internet communication. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association of Internet Researchers, Toronto, Canada. Retrieved from https://umdrive.memphis.edu/kmmrkman/www/KMarkmanAOIR4Paper.pdf

In-text citations guide  

Conference papers and proceedings - published

If conference proceedings are published:

  • regularly (in a journal) - treat like a journal article
  • as a book - treat like a book or book chapter

Conference paper - in regularly published proceedings and retrieved online

Reference list entry:

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H. & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 12593–12598. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0805417105

  • include a DOI or URL, as for an online journal article.

Conference proceedings - published as a book

Reference list entry:

Olsson, S., & Stirton, N. (Eds.). (1996). Women and leadership: Power and practice: International conference, 1996. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University.

 

Conference paper - in regularly published proceedings and retrieved in print

Reference list entry:

Bruner, J. (2000). Reading for possible worlds. Yearbook of the National Reading Conference, 49, 31–40.

 

Conference paper - abstract retrieved online

Reference list entry:

Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from http://www.iceis.org/iceis2005/abstracts_2005.htm

In-text citations guide  

Conference papers and presentations - not formally published

  • use this format for papers not available online, and not published in a book or journal
  • include the year and the month of the symposium or meeting

Symposium contribution reference format:

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C.C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month). Title of the contribution. In E. E. Chairperson (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of Organisation Name, Location.


Reference list entry:

Muellbauer, J. (2007, September). Housing, credit, and consumer expenditure. In S. C. Ludvigson (Chair), Housing and consumer behaviour. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Jackson Hole, WY.

 

Paper presentation reference format:

Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper. Paper presented at the meeting of Organisation Name, Location.

 

In-text citations guide  

Notes on the Reference List

A reference list only lists the sources you have referred to in your writing.  

The purpose of the reference list is to allow your sources to be be found by your reader. It also gives credit to authors whose work and ideas you have considered.  All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list, except for personal communications (such as conversations or emails) which cannot be retrieved.  

A bibliography is different from a reference list as it lists all the sources used during your research and background reading, not just the ones you refer to in your writing.  

Reference list example

References

Alred, G. J., Brusaw, C. T., & Oliu, W. E. (2009). The business writer’s handbook. New York, NY: St Martin's Press.

Best, A. (2004). International history of the twentieth century. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com

Easton, B. (2008). Does poverty affect health? In K. Dew & A. Matheson (Eds.), Understanding health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 97–106). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Flesch, R. (n.d.). How to write plain English. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.mang.canterbury.ac.nz/writing_guide /writing/flesch.shtml

​Global warming. (2009, June 1). Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming

Li, S., & Seale, C. (2007). Learning to do qualitative data analysis: An observational study of doctoral work. Qualitative Health Research, 17, 1442–1452. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732307306924  

Radio New Zealand. (2008). Annual report 2007-2008. Retrieved from http://static.radionz.net.nz/assets /pdf_file/0010/179676/Radio_NZ_Annual_Report_2008.pdf  

Read, E. (2007, November 1). Myth-busting gen Y. New Zealand Management. Retrieved from http://www.management.co.nz

Formatting

Title Include the title 'References' (one word, beginning with a capital letter, centred, and not in italics

 

Indent Hanging indent your references (space bar in 5 - 7 spaces for the second and subsequent lines of each reference)
Space between references In general double-space between references
Ampersand Use for 2 - 6 authors, use & before the final author
One author, two publications Order by year of publication, the earlier one first.  Same year of publication for both - add 'a' and 'b' after the year, inside the brackets. Include this in the in text citation. example: Baheti, J. R. (2001a).
URLs Remove the underlines from URLs so that any underscores ( _ ) can be seen
Same first author, different second author Order alphabetically by second or subsequent authors
Upper case letters (capital letters)

Journal title - use headline style; i.e. capitalise all the words, except articles and prepositions

Book title or article title (in a journal, magazine or newspaper) - use sentence style; i.e. capitalise the first word of the title, and subtitle (after the colon), and any proper names

Place of publication

USA publishers give the city in full and the abbreviation for the state. 
New York, NY
Springfield, MA

Publishers outside the USA: Give the city in full and the country in full
London, England
Auckland, New Zealand

Square brackets

If format, medium or description information is important for a resource to be retrieved or identified, use square brackets after the title to include this detail:  

Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can
    count on me [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.