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APA Referencing Style Guide

This guide introduces the APA referencing style with examples of citation styles for different types of resources.

ClinicalKey, MIMSGateway, Cochrane Systematic Reviews

ClinicalKey reference list entries

Chapter in an e-book:

Corey, B.L., & Stahl, R.D. (2017). Glycemic control and cardiovascular disease risk reduction after bariatric surgery. In J. l. Cameron (Ed.), Current surgical therapy (pp. 806-811). Retrieved from

Journal article - with doi:

Shin, J. J., Lee, E. K., Park, T. J., & Kim, W. (2015). Damage-associated molecular patterns and their pathological relevance in diabetes mellitus. Ageing Research Reviews, 24(Pt A), 66-76. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2015.06.004

Journal article - no doi:

Courties, A., & Sellam, J. (2016). Osteoarthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus: What are the links? Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 122, 198-206. Retrieved from


Cochrane Systematic Reviews

Blake, D., Farquhar, C., Johnson, N., & Proctor, M. (2007). Cleavage stage versus blastocyst stage embryo transfer in assisted conception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007(4).

For more help with referencing Cochrane Systematic Reviews go to the APA Blog.


MIMS Gateway reference list entries

No PDF available:


Mimsgateway. (2016a). Acarbose. Retrieved December 16, 2017, from


Mimsgateway. (2016b). Aspirin. Retrieved December 16, 2017, from


Mimsgateway. (2016c). Clexane. Retrieved December 16, 2017, from

PDF document:

Mimsgateway. (2016). Accupril. Retrieved from

Web and intranet resources

Reference format for documents on a website



Author(s). (Year). Title of document. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx

PDF document:


Author(s). (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from http://xxxx


Reference list entries for websites:

The Code on the Health and Disability Commissioner website:

Health and Disability Commissioner. (n.d.). The HDC Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights Regulation 1996. Retrieved December 16, 2017, from

Clinical guidelines on the Auckland District Health Board website:

Auckland District Health Board. (2016a). Abuse and neglect. Retrieved December 16, 2016, from

Auckland District Health Board. (2016b). Dopamine. Retrieved December 16, 2016, from

PDF document from Health and Disability Commissioner's website:

Health and Disability Commissioner. (2009). A review of the Health and Disability Commissioner Act 1994 and Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer's Rights. Report to the Minister of Health. Retrieved from

Note: There are two versions of the 2009 Health and Disability Commissioner Act review report on the HDC website. The easy to read report is incomplete. Refer to the full publication unless told otherwise by your lecturer.


Reference format for documents on an intranet

An intranet is a private communication network accessible only to staff within an organisation. An organisation's document file tree is an intranet. Use the referencing formats given above. 

Reference list entry:

Auckland District Health Board. (2011). Procedures for clients’ right to privacy. Retrieved from http://www.adhb/staff/procedures/client_right_to_privacy

New Zealand Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)

For help referencing the New Zealand Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) see Legislation and cases.

Legislation and commentary

For help referencing health legislation, cases and commentary see Legislation and cases.

Notes on the Reference List

A reference list only lists the sources you have referred to in your writing.  

The purpose of the reference list is to allow your sources to be be found by your reader. It also gives credit to authors whose work and ideas you have considered.  All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list, except for personal communications (such as conversations or emails) which cannot be retrieved.  

A bibliography is different from a reference list as it lists all the sources used during your research and background reading, not just the ones you refer to in your writing.  

Reference list example


Alred, G. J., Brusaw, C. T., & Oliu, W. E. (2009). The business writer’s handbook. New York, NY: St Martin's Press.

Best, A. (2004). International history of the twentieth century. Retrieved from

Easton, B. (2008). Does poverty affect health? In K. Dew & A. Matheson (Eds.), Understanding health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 97–106). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Flesch, R. (n.d.). How to write plain English. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from /writing/flesch.shtml

​Global warming. (2009, June 1). Retrieved June 4, 2009, from

Li, S., & Seale, C. (2007). Learning to do qualitative data analysis: An observational study of doctoral work. Qualitative Health Research, 17, 1442–1452.  

Radio New Zealand. (2008). Annual report 2007-2008. Retrieved from /pdf_file/0010/179676/Radio_NZ_Annual_Report_2008.pdf  

Read, E. (2007, November 1). Myth-busting gen Y. New Zealand Management. Retrieved from


Title Include the title 'References' (one word, beginning with a capital letter, centred, and not in italics


Indent Hanging indent your references (space bar in 5 - 7 spaces for the second and subsequent lines of each reference)
Space between references In general double-space between references
Ampersand Use for 2 - 6 authors, use & before the final author
One author, two publications Order by year of publication, the earlier one first.  Same year of publication for both - add 'a' and 'b' after the year, inside the brackets. Include this in the in text citation. example: Baheti, J. R. (2001a).
URLs Remove the underlines from URLs so that any underscores ( _ ) can be seen
Same first author, different second author Order alphabetically by second or subsequent authors
Upper case letters (capital letters)

Journal title - use headline style; i.e. capitalise all the words, except articles and prepositions

Book title or article title (in a journal, magazine or newspaper) - use sentence style; i.e. capitalise the first word of the title, and subtitle (after the colon), and any proper names

Place of publication

USA publishers give the city in full and the abbreviation for the state. 
New York, NY
Springfield, MA

Publishers outside the USA: Give the city in full and the country in full
London, England
Auckland, New Zealand

Square brackets

If format, medium or description information is important for a resource to be retrieved or identified, use square brackets after the title to include this detail:  

Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can
    count on me [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.