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APA Referencing Style Guide

This guide introduces the APA referencing style with examples of citation styles for different types of resources.

Annual Reports

Annual report from a website

Reference list entry:

Radio New Zealand. (2008). Annual report 2007-2008. Retrieved from http://static.radionz.net.nz/assets/pdf_file/0010 /1796761/Radio_NZ_Annual_Report_2008.pdf

Annual report from a Library database

Reference list entry:

Auckland International Airport. (2008). We're in a great place: Annual report 2008. Retrieved from NZX Company Research database.

Find how to do in-text citations on the In-text citations page.  

Waitangi Tribunal reports

Print report

Reference list entry:

Waitangi Tribunal. (2015). He Whiritaunoka: The Whanganui land report (Report no. Wai 903). Lower Hutt, New Zealand: Legislation Direct.

Online report   

Reference list entry:

Waitangi Tribunal. (2015). He Whiritaunoka: The Whanganui land report (Report no. Wai 903). Retrieved March 1, 2016, from http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunals/Reports/he-whiritaunoka-the-whanganui-land-report

Online report (PDF format)

Reference list entry:

Waitangi Tribunal. (2015). He Whiritaunoka: The Whanganui land report (Report no. Wai 903). Retrieved from https://forms.justice.govt.nz/search/Documents/WT/wt_DOC_97551683/He%20Whiritaunoka%20Extracts.pdf

In-text citation:

(Waitangi Tribunal, 2015)

Other types of reports

Reference format for print report:

Author, Initial. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher.

  • Treat print reports like a book
  • Give the report number in parentheses ( ... ) immediately after the title, e.g.:

Reports from Library databases

Reference list entries:

Euromonitor International. (2010, August 18). NetPad: The battle for portable computing supremacy. Retrieved from Passport database.

Euromonitor International. (2017, January 27). Coffee in New Zealand. Retrieved from Passport database.

Euromonitor International. (2015, September 3). Independent Distillers Group in Alcoholic Drinks (New Zealand): Strategic direction [Company profile]. Retrieved from Passport database.

MarketLIne. (2016, August 31). New Zealand- Hotels & Motels [Industry profile]. Retrieved from MarketLine Advantage database.

 

Online reports

Reference list entries:

Kessy, S. S. A., & Urio, F. M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in Tanzania (Research Report No. 06.3). Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation website: http://www.repoa.or.tz/documents_storage/Publications/Reports/06.3_Kessy_and_Urio.pdf

  • Identify the publisher in the retrieval statement when the author of the online report is not the publisher.

Ministry of Health. (2007). Diabetes surveillance: Population-based estimates and projections for New Zealand, 2001–2011 (Public Health Intelligence Occasional Bulletin No. 46). Retrieved from http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/pagesmh/6796/$File/diabetes-suveillance-population-estimates-projections-2001-2011.pdf

  • If the publisher is the same as the author only the URL is required

Report from an institutional archive

Reference list entry:

McDaniel, J. E., & Miskel, C. G. (2002). The effect of groups and individuals on national decision making: Influence and domination in the reading policy-making environment (CIERA Report 3-025). Retrieved from University of Michigan, Center for Improvement of Early Reading Achievement website: http://www.ciera.org/library/reports

ERIC document

Reference list entry:

Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2002). Full-day kindergarten: Exploring an option for extended learning. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED472733)

  • include the ERIC accession number (ED....)

 

Find how to do in-text citations on the In-text citations page.  

Notes on the Reference List

A reference list only lists the sources you have referred to in your writing.  

The purpose of the reference list is to allow your sources to be be found by your reader. It also gives credit to authors whose work and ideas you have considered.  All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list, except for personal communications (such as conversations or emails) which cannot be retrieved.  

A bibliography is different from a reference list as it lists all the sources used during your research and background reading, not just the ones you refer to in your writing.  

Reference list example

References

Alred, G. J., Brusaw, C. T., & Oliu, W. E. (2009). The business writer’s handbook. New York, NY: St Martin's Press.

Best, A. (2004). International history of the twentieth century. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com

Easton, B. (2008). Does poverty affect health? In K. Dew & A. Matheson (Eds.), Understanding health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 97–106). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Flesch, R. (n.d.). How to write plain English. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.mang.canterbury.ac.nz/writing_guide /writing/flesch.shtml

​Global warming. (2009, June 1). Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming

Li, S., & Seale, C. (2007). Learning to do qualitative data analysis: An observational study of doctoral work. Qualitative Health Research, 17, 1442–1452. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732307306924  

Radio New Zealand. (2008). Annual report 2007-2008. Retrieved from http://static.radionz.net.nz/assets /pdf_file/0010/179676/Radio_NZ_Annual_Report_2008.pdf  

Read, E. (2007, November 1). Myth-busting gen Y. New Zealand Management. Retrieved from http://www.management.co.nz

Formatting

Title Include the title 'References' (one word, beginning with a capital letter, centred, and not in italics

 

Indent Hanging indent your references (space bar in 5 - 7 spaces for the second and subsequent lines of each reference)
Space between references In general double-space between references
Ampersand Use for 2 - 6 authors, use & before the final author
One author, two publications Order by year of publication, the earlier one first.  Same year of publication for both - add 'a' and 'b' after the year, inside the brackets. Include this in the in text citation. example: Baheti, J. R. (2001a).
URLs Remove the underlines from URLs so that any underscores ( _ ) can be seen
Same first author, different second author Order alphabetically by second or subsequent authors
Upper case letters (capital letters)

Journal title - use headline style; i.e. capitalise all the words, except articles and prepositions

Book title or article title (in a journal, magazine or newspaper) - use sentence style; i.e. capitalise the first word of the title, and subtitle (after the colon), and any proper names

Place of publication

USA publishers give the city in full and the abbreviation for the state. 
New York, NY
Springfield, MA

Publishers outside the USA: Give the city in full and the country in full
London, England
Auckland, New Zealand

Square brackets

If format, medium or description information is important for a resource to be retrieved or identified, use square brackets after the title to include this detail:  

Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can
    count on me [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.  

 

Secondary citations

A secondary citation is where you are citing information or quotes the author of your reference has taken from source that you have not read.

In-text citation:

Seidenberg and McClelland’s study, conducted in 1990 (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), shows that ...
... as some studies show (Seidenberg & McClelland, as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993).
  • Name the author of the original work in your text, cite the secondary source in in-text citation: (as cited in ..., 1993)

Reference list entry: 

Coltheart, M., Curtis, B. Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589–608.

  • Give the secondary source in the reference list.