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General notes

See APA Referencing Style Guide -Theses & Dissertation for definitive examples of APA-compliant references.

Theses & dissertations – common issues

  • Use the Thesis Type field to enter
    • Master's thesis / dissertation, Doctoral thesis / dissertation, Exegesis etc
    • Full name of university/institution awarding the degree and its location (city, country or city, state for US)
  • All theses and dissertations are considered unpublished regardless of format (print or digital) or source (institutional repository, aggregated archive etc)


When EndNote output does not follow the exact APA style try the following:

Resource Reference Type Instruction Example

Thesis or dissertation, online from a commercial database


In the Thesis Type field

  • include the form of work such as Master's thesis, Doctoral dissertation etc.

In the Name of Database field

  • enter the name of the database, such as  ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Full Text

In the Document Number field

  •  enter the Accession Number (if there is one), e.g. UMI No. 3371229

Do not enter University or Location information

Pflieger, J. C. (2009). Adolescents' parent and peer relations and romantic outcomes in young adulthood (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Full Text database. (UMI No. 3371229)

Thesis or dissertation, online from an institutional repository or a website


In the Thesis Type field 

  • Include the form of work such as Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Unpublished Master's thesis etc.
  • In the same field, include the full name of the degree-granting institution/university
  • In the same field also include the location as City, Country (for  institutions outside of USA) or City, State (for USA)

Note:  all of this information should be typed within one field so it appears within brackets in the reference.

In the URL field

  • Include the full URL of the Thesis or Dissertation

Thomas, R. (2009). The making of a journalist: The New Zealand way (Doctoral thesis, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand). Retrieved from

Thesis or dissertation. Print/Hardcopy format  



In the Thesis Type field

  • Include the form of work such as Unpublished doctoral Dissertation, Unpublished Master's thesis, etc.

In the University field

  • Include the full name of the degree-granting institution/university
  • Include location as City, Country (for institutions outside of USA) or City, State (for USA)

Knight, A. (2001). Exercise and osteoarthritis of the knee (Unpublished master's dissertation). Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.