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APA 6th Referencing Style Guide

This guide introduces the APA referencing style with examples of citation styles for different types of resources.

Conference papers found online

Conference paper as a PDF from a website

Porter, M., Omar, M., Campus, C., & Edinburgh, S. (2008, January). Marketing to the bottom of the pyramid: Opportunities in emerging markets. Paper presented at the 7th International Congress Marketing Trends, Venice, Italy. Retrieved from

Markman, K. M. (2003, October). Taking the flesh with me: Embodied; interaction as a framework for studying Internet communication. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association of Internet Researchers, Toronto, Canada. Retrieved from

In-text citations guide  

Conference papers and proceedings - published

If conference proceedings are published:

  • regularly (in a journal) - treat like a journal article
  • as a book - treat like a book or book chapter


Conference paper online - in regularly published proceedings or retrieved from a library database

Reference list entry:

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H. & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 12593–12598.

  • If a DOI is available, include the DIO in the citation
  • If there isn't a DOI, and the paper is online open access, include the URL of the conference paper in the citation 
  • Most conference papers from a database will have a DOI. For those without a DOI, use the URL of the database homepage and remove the and onwards from the URL. For example,


Conference proceedings - published as a book

Reference list entry:

Olsson, S., & Stirton, N. (Eds.). (1996). Women and leadership: Power and practice: International conference, 1996. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Massey University.


Conference paper - in regularly published proceedings and retrieved in print

Reference list entry:

Bruner, J. (2000). Reading for possible worlds. Yearbook of the National Reading Conference, 49, 31–40.


Conference paper - abstract retrieved online

Reference list entry:

Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from

In-text citations guide  

Conference papers and presentations - not formally published

  • Use the following formats for papers not available online, and not published in a book or journal
  • Include the year and the month of the symposium or meeting

Symposium contribution

reference format:

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C.C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month). Title of the contribution. In E. E. Chairperson (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of Organisation Name, Location.

Reference list entry:

Muellbauer, J. (2007, September). Housing, credit, and consumer expenditure. In S. C. Ludvigson (Chair), Housing and consumer behaviour. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Jackson Hole, WY.


Paper presented in a conference 

reference format:

Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper. Paper presented at the meeting of Organisation Name, Location.


In-text citations guide