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APA 6th Referencing Style Guide

This guide introduces the APA referencing style with examples of citation styles for different types of resources.

Personal communications

No entry in the reference list is needed as personal communications are unable to be retrieved.

Examples of personal communications include:

  • telephone conversations
  • Interviews that are not recoverable
  • emails
  • private letters
  • non-archived discussion groups

In-text citation:

Tokugawa (personal communication, January 25, 2019) suggested in an email that.....


Given all the political factors...(I. Tokugawa, personal communication, January 25, 2019).

  • Include initials and an exact date.