Skip to Main Content

Chicago Referencing Guide

Notes-Bibliography Style

Thesis - general pattern


#. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle" (type of thesis, University, Year), page(s), URL or Database Name.


Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Type of thesis, University, Year. URL or Database Name.

Thesis, dissertation or exegesis?

Thesis and dissertation can mean different things, depending on which institution the work is from.

At Auckland University of Technology (and other NZ universities):

  • Thesis is used either for a doctoral or a master's degree.
  • Dissertation is used either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours.
  • Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work;  e.g. a film, artwork, novel.

In some other parts of the world, such as the United States, a dissertation may be used for a doctoral degree and a thesis used for a master's degree. You can use the same citation pattern, no matter what the type of thesis is called.

Type of thesis

List the type of thesis as it appears on the title page, but abbreviate dissertation as diss.


22. Peter Gilderdale, "Hands Across the Sea: Situating an Edwardian Greetings Postcard Practice" (PhD thesis, Auckland University of Technology, 2013), 22,

23. Emma Macann, "Stille: The Art of Being Silent" (master's thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 2010), 18-26,

24. Song-Tae Chong, "Hurricane Katrina: Visuality, Photography, and Representing a Crisis" (PhD diss., New York University, 2014), 15, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.


Byres, Jan. "Positioning, Constructing and Assessing Visual Art: Primary Teachers' Perspectives." Master's thesis, University of Canterbury, 2006.

Fey, Cheng-Yi. "The Cut: Refiguring Traditional Chinese Paper-cutting." Master's thesis, Auckland University of Technology, 2011.

Noonan, Jennifer. "Romancing the Stone: Printmaking and the Body in the 1960s and 1970s." PhD diss., Pennsylvania State University, 2007. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.