Your bibliography should include every work that you cite in your text, as well as works that were important to your thinking, even if you did not mention them in your text. Label this standard type Bibliography or Sources Consulted.
There are other types of bibliography which you may be asked to create:
If a bibliography only includes some of the sources you have used, it should be labelled Selected Bibliography. If you choose to create this type of biblography, make sure your lecturer or supervisor knows that you are only citing selected sources, and give a good reason for this.
This is a list of works by a single author. Label it Works of [Author's Name]. You can arrange it chronologically or alphabetically by title.
This is a bibliography with added annotations - descriptions of each work's content and/or its relevance to your research. Check with your lecturer or supervisor to see what their requirements are in regards to the length and purpose of the annotations. Brief annotations (usually a single phrase) can be added in brackets after the publication data.
Lupton, Ellen. Beautiful Users: Designing for People. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2014. [a comprehensive history of user-centered design theory]
Longer annotations can be added on a new line, without brackets.
Lupton, Ellen. Beautiful Users: Designing for People. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2014.
|Title||Include the title Bibliography.|
|Arrangement||Arrange your references alphabetically by the last name of the author, editor, or whoever is first in the entry.|
|Indent||Hanging indent your references (the first line is flush left and all following lines are indented).|
|Line spacing||In general, single space your references, but make sure there is a line space between references.|
|Titles with subtitles||Cite the complete title, with any subtitles. Separate titles from subtitles with a colon. If there are two subtitles, use a colon before the first and a semicolon before the second.|
|Ampersand||Change any ampersands (&) in titles to and.|
|Capital letters in titles||
In general, titles should be headline style (capitalise the first letter of all the major words in the title).
Foreign language titles (not in English) are the exception - they should be formatted sentence style (capitalise only the first word of the title and subtitle, and any proper nouns).
|Place of publication||
For more details on formatting individual elements of a bibliographic reference, see the examples of each source type in the left-hand menu, and the detailed notes below.
Cross, Nigel. Design Thinking: Understanding How Designers Think and Work. New York: Berg, 2011.
———. Designerly Ways of Knowing. London: Springer, 2006.
———. Engineering Design Methods: Strategies for Product Design. Chichester: Wiley, 2008.
List all these works before any that the individual co-authored or co-edited.
For a work that you found online, choose the appropriate location information to include:
DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.
Always use the DOI in your citation, if available.
To cite a DOI, append the DOI number (starting with 10.) to https://doi.org/
Hom Carey, Stephanie. “The Tourist Moment.” Annals of Tourism Research 31, no. 1 (2004): 61-77. https://doi.org/10.48903243/3490.
If there is no DOI for an online work, include a URL in your reference.If a URL is listed along with the work, use that one rather than the one in your browser's address bar (which may not be a stable URL).
Grace, Willenda. “Apples for Oranges: Creative Practice in Situational Contexts.” Journal of Art Practice 5, no. 2 (2010): 35-37. http://www.jlap.ac.uk/gracew15493.
If you found the work by searching a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL.
Odell, Thomas. “When the Party is Over: Nationalism and Consumerism in Conflict.” International Business Review, no. 232 (Spring 2000): 58-67. Scopus.
If a source that you are using includes a useful quotation from another source, you should try to obtain the original and cite that, in order to verify that the quotation is accurate and quoted in context. However, if the original source is unavailable, you can cite it as quoted in the secondary source.
Rosen, Michael. "Nursery Rhymes and Hairy Crimes." Even my Ears are Smiling. London: Bloomsbury Childrens, 2011. Quoted in Michael Joseph, "'Orphans of Poetry': The Poetry of Childhood and the Poetry for Children of Robert Graves." Book 2.0 6, no. 1/2 (2016): 9-20. Art Full Text.
By convention, you can leave references to the following source types out of your bibliography. Cite them in your notes only, unless they are critical to your argument or frequently cited, in which case you should include them:
Ferguson, Scott. "Towards Unbearable Lightness, or Topsy-Turvy Technology in the New Pooh." Screen 55, no. 2 (Summer 2014): 165-88. https://doi.org/10.1093/screen/hju009.
Gangelhoff, Bonnie. "Watercolor Renegade." Southwest Art 35, no. 2 (2005): 142-45. Art Full Text.
Gossin, Pamela. "Animated Nature: Aesthetics, Ethics, and Empathy in Miyazaki Hayao's Ecophilosophy." Mechademia 10 (2015): 209-34. Art Full Text.
Montesdeoca, S. E., H. S. Seah, H. M. Rall, and D. Benvenuti. "Art-Directed Watercolor Stylization of 3d Animations in Real-Time." Computers and Graphics 65 (2017): 60-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cag.2017.03.002.
Sito, Tom. "Margaret the Duck and Other Memories of Annecy." Animation 21, no. 7 (2007): 24-24. Art & Architecture Complete.
———. Moving Innovation: A History of Computer Animation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013.
———. "Walt and the Professor." Animation 28, no. 7 (2014): 16-17. Art & Architecture Complete.