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Chicago Referencing Guide

Notes-Bibliography Style

Types of bibliographies


Your bibliography should include every work that you cite in your text, as well as works that were important to your thinking, even if you did not mention them in your text. Label this standard type Bibliography or Sources Consulted.

There are other types of bibliography which you may be asked to create:

Selected bibliography

If a bibliography only includes some of the sources you have used, it should be labelled Selected Bibliography. If you choose to create this type of biblography, make sure your lecturer or supervisor knows that you are only citing selected sources, and give a good reason for this.

Single-author bibliography

This is a list of works by a single author. Label it Works of [Author's Name]You can arrange it chronologically or alphabetically by title.

Annotated bibliography

This is a bibliography with added annotations - descriptions of each work's content and/or its relevance to your research. Check with your lecturer or supervisor to see what their requirements are in regards to the length and purpose of the annotations. Brief annotations (usually a single phrase) can be added in brackets after the publication data.

Lupton, Ellen. Beautiful Users: Designing for People. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2014. [a comprehensive history of user-centered design theory] 

Longer annotations can be added on a new line, without brackets.

Lupton, Ellen. Beautiful Users: Designing for People. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2014.
Lupton presents a comprehensive 
history and overview of user-centered design theory up to 2014. Includes case studies and a useful glossary of terms used in the field.

Bibliography formatting guide

Title Include the title Bibliography.
Arrangement Arrange your references alphabetically by the last name of the author, editor, or whoever is first in the entry.
Indent Hanging indent your references (the first line is flush left and all following lines are indented).
Line spacing In general, single space your references, but make sure there is a line space between references.
Titles with subtitles Cite the complete title, with any subtitles. Separate titles from subtitles with a colon. If there are two subtitles, use a colon before the first and a semicolon before the second.
Ampersand Change any ampersands (&) in titles to and.
Capital letters in titles

In general, titles should be headline style (capitalise the first letter of all the major words in the title).

Little Big Books: Illustrations for Children's Picture Books.

Foreign language titles (not in English) are the exception - they should be formatted sentence style (capitalise only the first word of the title and subtitle, and any proper nouns).

Zhongguo chuan mei fa zhan qian yan tan suo [New perspectives on news and communication].

Place of publication

This is the city where the publisher's main editorial offices are listed. Look for it on the title page or with the copyright information. Where two or more cities are listed, use only the first. If the city of publication might be confused with another city of the same name, add a state abbreviation, province or country as necessary.

Auckland: Huia.

Oxford: Whitechapel Press.

Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

For more details on formatting individual elements of a bibliographic reference, see the examples of each source type in the left-hand menu, and the detailed notes below.

Multiple works by the same author or editor

  • When you reference more than one work by an author (or editor) in your paper, list them alphabetically by title (ignoring words such as a or the).
  • For all references after the first, a group of three em dashes and a period should replace the author’s name. You can insert an em dash in Microsoft Word 2016 by choosing Insert > Symbol > Special Character > Em Dash. Alternatively, you can use six small dashes.

Cross, Nigel. Design Thinking: Understanding How Designers Think and Work. New York: Berg, 2011.

———. Designerly Ways of Knowing. London: Springer, 2006.

———. Engineering Design Methods: Strategies for Product Design. Chichester: Wiley, 2008.

List all these works before any that the individual co-authored or co-edited.

Location of online works

For a work that you found online, choose the appropriate location information to include:

  • If there is a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) listed with the work, use that.
  • If no DOI is available, use a stable URL.
  • If you found the work by searching a library or commercial database, you can use the database name instead of a URL.


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.

  • A DOI is a string of characters that commonly identifies a journal article, but can also be found on other publication types, including books.
  • All DOIs start with 10. and include numbers and letters. For example: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.001
  • The DOI provides a permanent internet address for the item, making it easy to locate.
  • You may search by DOI numbers in Library Search or at, to locate articles.

Always use the DOI in your citation, if available. 

To cite a DOI, append the DOI number (starting with 10.) to

Hom Carey, Stephanie. “The Tourist Moment.” Annals of Tourism Research 31, no. 1 (2004): 61-77.


If there is no DOI for an online work, include a URL in your reference.If a URL is listed along with the work, use that one rather than the one in your browser's address bar (which may not be a stable URL). 

Grace, Willenda. “Apples for Oranges: Creative Practice in Situational Contexts.” Journal of Art Practice 5, no. 2 (2010): 35-37.

Database name

If you found the work by searching a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL.

Odell, Thomas. “When the Party is Over: Nationalism and Consumerism in Conflict.” International Business Review, no. 232 (Spring 2000): 58-67. Scopus.

Secondary source - in bibliography

If a source that you are using includes a useful quotation from another source, you should try to obtain the original and cite that, in order to verify that the quotation is accurate and quoted in context. However, if the original source is unavailable, you can cite it as quoted in the secondary source.

Rosen, Michael. "Nursery Rhymes and Hairy Crimes." Even my Ears are Smiling. London: Bloomsbury Childrens, 2011. Quoted in Michael Joseph, "'Orphans of Poetry': The Poetry of Childhood and the Poetry for Children of Robert Graves." Book 2.0 6, no. 1/2 (2016): 9-20. Art Full Text.

Sources that can be omitted

By convention, you can leave references to the following source types out of your bibliography. Cite them in your notes only, unless they are critical to your argument or frequently cited, in which case you should include them:

  • newspaper articles
  • classical, medieval, and early English literary works
  • the Bible and other sacred works
  • well-known reference works, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias
  • abstracts
  • unpublished interviews and personal communications
  • websites
  • online videos and podcasts
  • social media posts
  • some sources in the visual and performing arts, including artworks and live performances (but note that for Art & Design writing, these sources are likely to be critical to your argument, and in this case they should be included)
  • cartoons, maps, and print advertisements
  • the US Constitution, legal cases, and some other public documents

If you are unsure about which of these you should include in your bibliography, consult Turabian's A Manual for Writers, or contact your Liaison Librarian for advice.

Bibliography example


Ferguson, Scott. "Towards Unbearable Lightness, or Topsy-Turvy Technology in the New Pooh." Screen 55, no. 2 (Summer 2014): 165-88.

Gangelhoff, Bonnie. "Watercolor Renegade." Southwest Art 35, no. 2 (2005): 142-45. Art Full Text.

Gossin, Pamela. "Animated Nature: Aesthetics, Ethics, and Empathy in Miyazaki Hayao's Ecophilosophy." Mechademia 10 (2015): 209-34. Art Full Text.

Montesdeoca, S. E., H. S. Seah, H. M. Rall, and D. Benvenuti. "Art-Directed Watercolor Stylization of 3d Animations in Real-Time." Computers and Graphics 65 (2017): 60-72.

Sito, Tom. "Margaret the Duck and Other Memories of Annecy." Animation 21, no. 7 (2007): 24-24. Art & Architecture Complete.

. Moving Innovation: A History of Computer Animation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013.

. "Walt and the Professor." Animation 28, no. 7 (2014): 16-17. Art & Architecture Complete.