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Chicago Referencing Guide

Notes-Bibliography Style

Journal articles - general pattern


#. Author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Article: Subtitle," Title of Journal Volume, Issue (Date of Publication): page(s), DOI or URL or Database Name.



Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article: Subtitle." Title of Journal Volume, Issue (Date of Publication): page range. DOI or URL or Database Name.


Give the name of each author (or other contributor) exactly as it appears on the article, and in the same order.

Multiple Authors

  • In notes, list the authors by first name and last name; in the bibliography, list the first author by their last name, first name, and use standard order (first name and last name) for all other contributors.


 22. James Elkins and Richard Gregor, "The Homonymic Curtain," Umeni / Art 63, no. 3 (May 2015): 15.


Elkins, James, and Richard Gregor. "The Homonymic Curtain." Umeni / Art 63, no. 3 (May 2015): 10-17.

  • For an article with four or more authors, list the first author and use et al. (short for 'et alia', Latin for 'and others') in place of all other author names, in the note only.


 23. Luca Bertolaccini et al., "An Overview of the Use of Artificial Neural Networks in Lung Cancer Research," Journal of Thoracic Disease 9, no. 4 (2017): 929.


Bertolaccini, Luca, Piergiorgio Solli, Alessandro Pardolesi, and Antonello Pasini. "An Overview of the Use of Artificial Neural Networks in Lung Cancer Research." Journal of Thoracic Disease 9, no. 4 (2017): 924-931.

Article title

  • List complete article titles and subtitles, if any, enclosed in quotation marks.
  • Separate the subtitle from the title with a colon. If there are two subtitles, use a colon before the first one and a semi-colon before the second.
  • Capitalise titles headline style: first word of the title and subtitle, and all major words, should begin with a capital letter.
  • Change ampersands & to and.

"Holograms: The Story of a Word and its Cultural Uses."

"Beyond the Familial Impulse: Domestic Photography and Sociocultural History in Post-Communist Poland, 1989–1996."

Foreign-language title (not in English)

  • Capitalise titles sentence style: only the first words of the title and subtitle, and all proper nouns, should begin with a capital letter.
  • If you add the English translation of a title, place it after the original, enclosed in square brackets, without quotation marks.

"Ebru sanatinda akkase teknigi." [The akkase technique in the art of marbling.]

Journal title

  • List journal titles in italics, with headline capitalisation.
  • You can omit an initial The.

Journal of Visual Art Practice

Studies in Popular Culture

Issue information

Include all the volume and issue information listed (this may be just an issue number).


Feigenbaum, Anna. "Marking Gender in Press Coverage of Ani DiFranco." Popular Music 24, no. 1 (2005): 37-56. Art Full Text.

Zheng, Jane. "Contextualizing Public Art Production in China: The Urban Sculpture Planning System in Shanghai." Geoforum, no.  82 (2017): 89-101.

Date of publication

  • Follow the date of publication format that is listed: it may be just the year, or may include a season or month as well.
  • Expand dates to the full year, even if they are abbreviated in the article (e.g., 1997 rather than 97).
  • Capitalise the names of seasons, even if they are not capitalised in the article (e.g., Spring rather than spring).


Herr, Christiane, and Ryan C. Ford. "Cellular Automata in Architectural Design: From Generic Systems to Specific Design Tools." Automation in Construction 72, no. 1 (December 2016): 39-45. Science Direct.

Riccini, Raimonda. "History From Things: Notes on the History of Industrial Design." Design Issues 14, no. 3 (Autumn 1998): 89-101. Business Source Complete.

Page numbers

  • A page number in a note refers to the specific page(s) from the article that you are citing.
  • In the bibliography entry, you should cite the full span of page numbers for the article within that journal issue.


14. Akira Saito, "Material Design and Structural Color Inspired by Biomimetic Approach," Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 12, no. 6 (December 2012): 16,


Saito, Akira. "Material Design and Structural Color Inspired by Biomimetic Approach." Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 12, no. 6 (December 2012): 15-22.

DOI, URL or Database name?

For a journal article that you found online, choose the appropriate location information to include:

  • If there is a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) listed with the work, use that.
  • If no DOI is available, use a stable URL.
  • If you found the work by searching a library or commercial database, you can use the database name instead of a URL.


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.

  • A DOI is a string of characters that commonly identifies a journal article, but can also be found on other publication types, including books.
  • All DOIs start with 10. and include numbers and letters. For example: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.001
  • The DOI provides a permanent internet address for the item, making it easy to locate.
  • You may search by DOI numbers in Library Search or at, to locate articles.

Always use the DOI in your citation, if available. 

To cite a DOI, append the DOI number (starting with 10.) to


Hom Carey, Stephanie. “The Tourist Moment.” Annals of Tourism Research 31, no. 1 (2004): 61-77.


If there is no DOI for an online article, include a URL in your reference.If a URL is listed along with the article, use that one rather than the one in your browser's address bar (which may not be a stable URL). 


Grace, Willenda. “Apples for Oranges: Creative Practice in Situational Contexts.” Journal of Art Practice 5, no. 2 (2010): 35-37.

Database name

If you found the article by searching a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL.


Odell, Thomas. “When the Party is Over: Nationalism and Consumerism in Conflict.” International Business Review, no. 232 (Spring 2000): 58-67. Scopus.