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Chicago Referencing Guide

Notes-Bibliography Style

Books - general pattern


#. Author's First Name Last Name, Title of Book: Subtitle (City of Publication: Publisher, Year), page(s).


Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.


Give the name of each author (or other contributor) exactly as it appears on the title page, and in the same order.

Multiple Authors

Two or three authors

  • In notes, list the authors by first name and last name; in the bibliography, list the first author by their last name, first name, and use standard order (first name and last name) for all other contributors.
  • Use and before the last name.


 1. Stephen Bayley and Terence Conran, Design: Intelligence Made Visible (London: Conran Octopus, 2007), 43.


Bayley, Stephen, and Terence Conran. Design: Intelligence Made Visible. London: Conran Octopus, 2007.

Four or more authors

  • In notes, list only the first author, and use et al. (short for the Latin phrase 'et alia' - 'and others') in place of the other author names.
  • In the bibliography, list all authors.


 1. Jeri A. Sechzer et al., Women and Mental Health (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1996), 242.


Sechzer, Jeri A., Florence L. Denmark, Anne Griffin, and Susanne J. Beck. Women and Mental Health. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Corporation or organisation as author

If there is no person author's name on the title page, and the book has been issued by a corporation or organisation, list the organisation as the author, even if it is also given as the publisher.


 2. Ministry of Education, The Arts in the New Zealand Curriculum (Wellington: Learning Media, 2000), 57.


New Zealand Historic Places Trust. Clendon House 1862. Wellington: New Zealand Historic Places Trust, 2009.

Editor or translator

Editor or translator as well as author

Add the editor or translator's name after the book title, using the abbreviation ed. or trans. in notes, and the phrases Edited by or Translated by in the bibliography.


 3. Allan Wexler, Absurd Thinking: Between Art and Design, ed. Ashley Simone (Zurich: Lars Muller, 2017), 208.


Loschek, Ingrid. When Clothes Become Fashion: Design and Innovation Systems. Translated by Lucinda Rennison. Oxford: Berg, 2009.

Editor or translator instead of author

When an editor or a translator is listed on a book's title page instead of an author, put their name in the author slot of your citation, preceding the abbreviation ed., eds. (for multiple editors) or trans. (whether single or multiple translators). 


4. Mark Taylor, ed., Interior Design and Architecture: Critical and Primary Sources (London: Bloomsbury, 2013), 61.


Heaney, Seamus, trans. Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.


  • List complete book titles and subtitles, if any.
  • Separate the subtitle from the title with a colon. If there are two subtitles, use a colon before the first one and a semi-colon before the second.
  • Capitalise titles headline style: first word of the title and subtitle, and all major words, should begin with a capital letter.
  • Change ampersands & to and.

Design Studies: Theory and Research in Graphic Design.

Social Design: Urban Change; Arts as Urban Innovation ‚Äč

Foreign-language title (not in English)

  • Capitalise titles sentence style: only the first words of the title and subtitle, and all proper nouns, should begin with a capital letter.
  • If you add the English translation of a title, place it after the original, enclosed in square brackets. 


 5. Jin Daiqiang, Shi jue chuan da she ji shi jian [Applied visual communication design] (Shanghai: Shanghai wen yi chu ban she, 2005), 11.


Parsons, Sarah, trans. Matière d'art: Architecture contemporaine en Suisse [A matter of art: Contemporary architecture in Switzerland]. Paris: Birkhäuser, 2001.


  • Some works are published in more than one edition, usually after significant content revisions. Always cite the edition you actually consulted.
  • Only identify an edition if it is not the first or only edition.
  • Include the edition number or description after the title, in an abbreviated form.
  • Abbreviate wording such as "Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged" as 2nd ed. Abbreviate "Revised Edition" as rev. ed.
  • Include the publication date of the edition you are citing, not of any previous or later editions.


 6. Alex W. White, The Elements of Graphic Design: Space, Unity, Page Architecture, and Type, 2nd ed. (New York: Allworth Press, 2011), 207.


Crowe, Timothy, and Lawrence J. Fennelly. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Rev. ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2013.

City of publication

  • The place of publication is the city where the book publisher's main editorial office is located. Look for it on the title page or near the copyright information.
  • Where more than one city is listed, use the first one only.
  • If the city could be confused with another city of the same name, include a state abbreviation or country, as necessary. 

London: Phaidon, 2012.

Cambridge, England: Pegasus Elliot Mackenzie, 2011.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Memphis, TN: RiverHouse Publishing, 2017.

Memphis, Egypt: University of Memphis, 2008.


  • Give the publisher's name exactly as it appears on the title page, even if you know it has since changed.
  • You may leave out an initial The and abbreviations such as Inc., Ltd., Co., and & Co.

Whitcombe and Tombs


University of Auckland Press

Year of publication

  • The year of publication is usually identical to the copyright date. 
  • If you cannot determine the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation n.d. (no date) in place of the year.
  • If no date is provided but you think you know what it is, you can add it in square brackets, with a question mark to indicate uncertainty.


 7. Mrs Lovechild, Cobwebs to Catch Flies, or, Dialogues in Short Sentences: Adapted to Children from the Age of Three to Eight Years (London: Darton, [1845?]).


Ruskin, John. King of the Golden River, or, The Black Brothers. Springfield, MA: McLoughlin, n.d.