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Chicago Referencing Guide

Notes-Bibliography Style

Social media

  • Only include a citation to social media content in your bibliography if it is critical to your argument or frequently cited.
  • For the author include the screen name and real name, if known.
  • In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the text of the post, capitalised as in the original.
  • Include the type of post, and the date. You can include a time stamp if you need to differentiate a post from others on the same day.
  • Also include a URL (which you can often find by right-clicking on the date or time stamp of the post).
  • Items shared on social media tend to disappear - it's good practice to keep screenshots in case you need to refer to posts later.


32. Stephen Fry (@stephenfry), "Happy Birth and Death Day, Shakespeare. Keep slaying those dragons, George #StGeorgesDay," Twitter, April 22, 2019, 11:29 p.m.,

33. Whakatane Museum and Art Gallery (@whakatanemuseamandarts), "Another great post card design for our new Volcanic Artist Residency, by @rossmurrayillustration #whakaari #whakatane," Instagram photo, July 6, 2018,

34. Maisey Rika, "A waiata and message from our tuakana the eldest civilisation on earth the First Nation people of Australia e te Rangatira e Te Iwi Moemoeā tena koutou katoa!" Facebook, May 22, 2019,

NB: Alternatively, you can choose to weave citation information for social media posts into your text, rather than including a reference. See Citing newspapers in text for more information on how to do this. 

Online forums and mailing lists

  • Information posted on electronic discussion groups or forums should be cited only in your notes.
  • Include the author, the title of the thread, the name of the forum, group or site, the date and time of the post, and a URL. Don't include email addresses.
  • If the post was to a private forum, it should be cited as a personal communication.


35. Catherine Morland, post to "HTML/CSS - Books n Blogs," The Web Design Forum, July 12, 2019, 12:44 p.m.,

NB: Alternatively, you can choose to weave citation information for forum posts into your text, rather than including a reference. See Citing newspapers in text for more information on how to do this.