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APA 7th Referencing Style Guide

Computer software & apps

Reference format

Who When What Where  
Author, A. A. (Year). Name of the software or app (Version number) [Computer software or Mobile app].


App Store.

Google Play Store. 



Athenahealth (2019). Epocrates (Version 19.10.1) [Mobile app].

Xero. (2019). Xero practice manager [Computer software].

  • 'Common' or well known software (e.g. Microsoft Office, Facebook, etc.) does not need to be referenced. Give the proper name of the software or app along with the version number in the text
  • If your audience is unlikely to be familiar with software or apps of limited distribution, provide in-text citations and reference list entries
  • Treat manuals and handbooks as books
  • If the publisher is the same as the author, as in the examples above, you may omit it


Find how to cite in text on the In-text citation page.

Computer games

Reference format

Who When What Where  

Developer, D. D.

Group Name.

(Year released). Title [Platform]. Publisher. https://xxxx


Fox, Toby. (2015). Undertale [Steam]. Toby Fox.

Vollmer, A., & Wohlwend, G. (2014). Threes [Mobile iOS]. Sirvo.

  • The APA Publication Manual does not specifically discuss computer games, so this format is an adaption of the Computer software and apps reference type 


Find how to cite in text on the In-text citation page.

Artificial intelligence software

Referencing the information retrieved from an artificial intelligence software, such as ChatGPT, as a personal communication.

Use in-text citations to cite the source retrieved from an AI software.

No entry in the reference list is needed as these chats are unable to be retrieved.

In-text citation

OpenAI (personal communication, January 25, 2023) generated the following response when... 

...that indicates a limitation of the software (OpenAI, personal communication, January 25, 2023). 

  • Include the owner of the software, the wording "personal communication", and the exact date.