Skip to Main Content

APA 7th Referencing Style Guide

Format of a reference list

The purpose of the reference list is to allow the resources cited in your work to be be found by your readers. It also gives credit to authors whose work and ideas you have considered.  

  • What to include: All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list, except for personal communications (such as conversations or emails) which cannot be retrieved.
  • Location: On a new page after the text and before any tables/figures or appendices.
  • Heading: use References as the title at the top of the page (beginning with a capital letter, in bold, centered, and not in italics).
  • Order: All references are listed by alphabetically by author, or title if there is no author; If there are two entries with identical authors but different dates, order them chronologically, earliest first. 
  • Space: Double-space the whole reference list.
  • Hanging indent: 0.5 inch (1.27cm) from the left margin for the second and subsequent lines of each reference.
  • URL: use of hyperlinks is preferred. However, you may use plain text that is not underlined for URLs.

Example of a reference List


​Global warming. (2020, January 20). In Wikipedia

Ioannidis, N. M., Rothstein, J. H., Pejaver, V., Middha, S., McDonnell, S. K., Baheti, S., Musolf, A., Li, Q., Holzinger, E., Karyadi, D., Cannon-Albright, L. A., Teerlink, C. C., Stanford, J. L., Isaacs, W. B., Xu, J., Cooney, K. A., Lange, E. M., Schleutker, J., Carpten, J. D., ... Weiva, S. (2016). Revel: An ensemble method for predicting the pathogenicity of rare missense variants. American Journal of Human Genetics, 99(4), 877–85. eunet.2015.09.011 

Jackson, S. L. (2015). Research methods: A modular approach (3rd ed.). Cengage.

Lew, A. A., & Cheer, J. M. (Eds.). (2018). Tourism resilience and adaptation to environmental change: Definitions and frameworks. Routledge.

Lopesi, L. (2018a). Beyond essentialism: Contemporary Moana art from Aotearoa New Zealand. Afterall: A Journal of Art, Context and Enquiry, 46, 106–115. 

Lopesi, L. (2018b). False divides. Bridget Williams Books.

Mason, I. & Missingham, R. (2019, October 21–25).  Research libraries, data curation, and workflows [Paper presentation].  eResearch Australasia Conference, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Page, J. T., & Parnell, L. J. (2019). Introduction to strategic public relations: Digital, global, and socially responsible communication. Sage.

Szczȩsna, A., Nowak, A., Grabiec, P., Paszkuta, M., Tajstra, M., & Wojciechowska, M. (2017). Survey of wearable multi-modal vital parameters measurement systems. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 526.

Vanderbauwhede, W. (2020). A few thoughts on work-life balance [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.