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Chicago Referencing Guide

Notes-Bibliography Style

Unpublished interviews

  • Unpublished interviews (including those you have conducted yourself) should usually be cited only in notes. Include them in your bibliography if they are critical to your argument or frequently cited.
  • Include the following information: name of the interviewee and interviewer, place and date of the interview (if known), location of any tapes or transcripts (if known).
  • Published interviews should be cited by citing the source where they were published (book, journal article, etc.).


61. Ursula Toksvig, interview by author, Auckland, March 22, 2017.

62. Vladimir Nabokov, interview by Nathalie Shahovskoy, May 14, 1958, transcript, Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov papers 1918-1974, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Personal communications

  • Conversations, unpublished letters, emails and text messages are all unrecoverable by your reader. Therefore they are classed as personal communications.
  • Cite personal communications only in notes.
  • Include a name, type of communication, and a date.


63. Joanie Walker, telephone conversation with author, April 6, 2012.

You can also cite a personal communication directly in your text, rather than in your notes, by including key elements in a sentence.

In an email to the author on February 12, 2018, Te Papa's senior curator, Puawai Cairns, listed the following criteria...