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Chicago/Turabian Referencing Guide

Notes-Bibliography Style

Unpublished interviews

  • Unpublished interviews (including those you have conducted yourself) should usually be cited only in notes. Include them in your bibliography if they are critical to your argument or frequently cited.
  • Include the following information: name of the interviewee and interviewer, place and date of the interview (if known), location of any tapes or transcripts (if known).
  • Published interviews should be cited by citing the source where they were published (book, journal article, etc.).

Note:

61. Ursula Toksvig, interview by author, Auckland, March 22, 2017.

62. Vladimir Nabokov, interview by Nathalie Shahovskoy, May 14, 1958, transcript, Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov papers 1918-1974, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Personal communications

  • Conversations, unpublished letters, emails and text messages are all unrecoverable by your reader. Therefore they are classed as personal communications.
  • Cite personal communications only in notes.
  • Include a name, type of communication, and a date.

Note:

63. Joanie Walker, telephone conversation with author, April 6, 2012.

You can also cite a personal communication directly in your text, rather than in your notes, by including key elements in a sentence.

In an email to the author on February 12, 2018, Te Papa's senior curator, Puawai Cairns, listed the following criteria...